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Climate change facts

How much hotter is the world now than in 1880? [ one degree ]

FROM IPCC REPORT 2013 P.21: The globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data as calculated by a linear trend, show a
warming of 0.85 [0.65 to 1.06] °C3
, over the period 1880 to 2012,
https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=187
http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_SummaryVolume_FINAL.pdf

2

We’ve got weather data stretching back to the 1880s.

NASA: Three of the world’s most complete temperature tracking records – from NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Climactic Data Center and the UK Meteorological Office’s Hadley Centre – begin in 1880.
https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=192
https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/21/why-does-the-temperature-record-shown-on-your-vital-signs-page-begin-at-1880/

3https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=195

THIS was the world back then… And THIS is the world now - much hotter.

NASA: Video shows the NASA time series. It shows the five-year average variation of global surface temperatures. Dark blue indicates areas cooler than average. Dark red indicates areas warmer than average.TIME SERIES: 1884 TO 2019 Data source: NASA/GISS Credit: NASA Scientific Visualization Studio

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=195

https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/

4

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=202

The three hottest years since 1880 were 2015, 2016 and 2019.

FROM NOAA WEBSITE: The warmest years globally have all occurred since 1998, with the top... being 2016, 2019, 2015 ... respectively

https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/projected-ranks

4.1

NASA: Temperature data (shows) rapid warming in the past few decades. According to NASA data, 2016 was the warmest year since 1880, continuing a long-term trend of rising global temperatures. The 10 warmest years in the 140-year record all have occurred since 2000, with the six warmest years being the six most recent years. Credit: NASA/NOAA.

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/21/why-does-the-temperature-record-shown-on-your-vital-signs-page-begin-at-1880/

5

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=210

Data from NASA, the US Climate Centre, the Japanese Met Office and the UK's Met Office all prove the same thing. The world is now about one  degree hotter than it was in 1880.

NASA: One of the hallmarks of good science is that observations should be independently confirmed by separate research groups using separate methods when possible. And in the case of global temperatures, that’s exactly what is happening. Despite some differences in the year-to-year rankings, the trends observed by all the groups are roughly the same. They all show warming. They all find the most recent decade to be warmer than previous decades.

https://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/features/201501_gistemp/

5.1

Data from NASA (proves)... the world IS getting hotter. .

FROM NASA WEBSITE "Nineteen of the 20 warmest years all have occurred since 2001, with the exception of 1998. The year 2016 ranks as the warmest on record."

https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/

5.2

https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/graph_data/Global_Mean_Estimates_based_on_Land_and_Ocean_Data/graph.txt

5.3

NASA:  (Data from) from NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies... show(s) rapid warming in the past few decades.

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/21/why-does-the-temperature-record-shown-on-your-vital-signs-page-begin-at-1880/

6

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=213

Data from... the Japanese Met Office (proves)... the world IS getting hotter. .

JAPANESE MET OFFICE: The annual anomaly of the global average surface temperature in 2019 (i.e. the average of the near-surface air temperature over land and the SST) was +0.43°C above the 1981-2010 average (+0.79°C above the 20th century average), and was the 2nd warmest since 1891. On a longer time scale, global average surface temperatures have risen at a rate of about 0.74°C per century.

https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/products/gwp/temp/ann_wld.html

7

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=214

Data from ... the UK's Met Office (proves)... the world IS getting hotter. .

NASA:  (Data from) UK Meteorological Office’s Hadley Centre ... show(s) rapid warming in the past few decades.

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/21/why-does-the-temperature-record-shown-on-your-vital-signs-page-begin-at-1880/

9

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=256

One degree doesn’t sound like much. But it’s been enough to increase the likelihood of some of the things you’ve seen on the news: super storms, massive floods and gigantic wildfires. Of course storms, floods and fires have always happened. But they’re becoming more powerful; and more likely.

NASA: More uncertain—but possible—outcomes of an increase in global temperatures include increased risk of drought and increased intensity of storms, including tropical cyclones with higher wind speeds, a wetter Asian monsoon, and, possibly, more intense mid-latitude storms.

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/RisingCost/rising_cost5.php

10

https://youtu.be/TMumYQJwAFw?t=276

According to NASA, 97% of climate scientists think that PEOPLE have caused global warming.

NASA: "Multiple studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals1 show that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree*: Climate-warming trends over the past century are extremely likely due to human activities. "

https://climate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus/

11

https://youtu.be/LbCAwZrx7Uw?t=287

In particular, (global heating is) caused by burning fossil fuels like coal and oil. This puts massive amounts of “greenhouse gases” into the atmosphere. Like Carbon dioxide and methane. And THAT makes the earth heat up.

NASA: in the last century or so, humans have been interfering with the energy balance of the planet, mainly through the burning of fossil fuels that give off additional carbon dioxide into the air. The level of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere has been rising consistently for decades and traps extra heat near the surface of the Earth, causing temperatures to rise.

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/19/what-is-the-greenhouse-effect/

12

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbCAwZrx7Uw&feature=youtu.be&t=287

WITHOUT MAJOR ACTION,  HOW MUCH HOTTER COULD WE GET BY 2100? [ 4 DEGREES ] According to NASA, without major action to cut emissions, global temperature is on track to rise by an average of 4 °C by 2100.

NASA: Based on a range of plausible emission scenarios, average surface temperatures could rise between 2°C and 6°C by the end of the 21st century.

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/GlobalWarming/page5.php

13

https://youtu.be/LbCAwZrx7Uw?t=341

But it could be even worse than that. Because global warming may... set off... irreversible chain reactions.

FROM WIKIPEDIA: The IPCC AR5 defines a tipping point as an irreversible change in the climate system. It states that the precise levels of climate change sufficient to trigger a tipping point remain uncertain, but that the risk associated with crossing multiple tipping points increases with rising temperature.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipping_points_in_the_climate_system

14

https://youtu.be/LbCAwZrx7Uw?t=383

the (Australian) bushfires of 2019 released a quarter of a billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere

FROM THE GUARDIAN: Australia's bushfires have emitted 250m tonnes of CO2

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/13/australias-bushfires-have-emitted-250m-tonnes-of-co2-almost-half-of-countrys-annual-emissions

15

https://youtu.be/LbCAwZrx7Uw?t=413

IS IT NOW TOO LATE TO PREVENT CLIMATE COLLAPSE? [ MAYBE NOT ] Exactly. We MIGHT not be too late - but we’ve really got to try hard.

NASA: "Some scientists argue a “global disaster” is already unfolding at the poles of the planet. But it may not be too late to avoid or limit some of the worst effects of climate change.

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/16/is-it-too-late-to-prevent-climate-change/

16

https://youtu.be/LbCAwZrx7Uw?t=420

humans have caused major climate changes already. And we've started a process which could lead to a climate catastrophe. Unless global behaviour changes radically.

NASA: Some scientists argue a “global disaster” is already unfolding at the poles of the planet. But it may not be too late to avoid or limit some of the worst effects of climate change.

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/16/is-it-too-late-to-prevent-climate-change/

16.1

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/GlobalWarming/page5.php

17

https://youtu.be/LbCAwZrx7Uw?t=435

Climate collapse is a global problem which requires a global response AND local efforts.

NASA: Because climate change is a truly global, complex problem... the solution will require both a globally-coordinated response ...and local efforts...It’s up to us what happens next."

https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/16/is-it-too-late-to-prevent-climate-change/

17

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2. THE ECOLOGICAL EMERGENCY

19

20

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=62

what proportion of wild mammals has been wiped out by people? ANSWER: 83%

THE GUARDIAN: Yet since the dawn of civilisation, humanity has caused the loss of 83% of all wild mammals

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/21/human-race-just-001-of-all-life-but-has-destroyed-over-80-of-wild-mammals-study

20.1

Source for The Guardian

https://www.pnas.org/content/115/25/6506

21

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=63

That’s why some scientists call our era the 'sixth mass extinction'

THE GUARDIAN: Earth's sixth mass extinction event under way, scientists warn

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jul/10/earths-sixth-mass-extinction-event-already-underway-scientists-warn

21.1

Source for The Guardian

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/30/E6089

22

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=68

The most famous previous mass extinction was when the dinosaurs were wiped out by an asteroid

NAT GEO: Learn about the mass extinction event 66 million years ago and the evidence for what ended the age of the dinosaurs . (after) a meteor the size of a mountain slammed into Earth 66 million years ago

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/dinosaur-extinction/

23

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=75

WE ARE THE ASTEROID etc

ARTWORK: We Are the Asteroid II  Artist Justin Brice Guariglia part of a nationwide set of art installations funded by Science Rising and the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS

https://youtu.be/XG1tOTK9UYY?t=35

24

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=79

We are losing the biodiversity that is essential for us to survive.

THE GUARDIAN: Stop biodiversity loss or we could face our own extinction, warns UN

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/03/stop-biodiversity-loss-or-we-could-face-our-own-extinction-warns-un

25

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=93

Ocean acidification has been called the "evil twin of global warming".

HUFF POST: Ocean Acidification Is Climate Change's 'Equally Evil Twin,' NOAA Chief Says

https://web.archive.org/web/20120712003629/http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/09/ocean-acidification-reefs-climate-change_n_1658081.html

26

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=99

About a third of the CO2 we produce dissolves into the ocean. Which makes it more acidic.

NATURE: The oceans take up CO2 from the atmosphere and are responsible for absorbing around a third of the CO2 emitted by fossil fuel burning, deforestation, and cement production since the industrial revolution (Sabine et al. 2004).... , there are direct consequences for ocean chemistry. Ocean acidification describes the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate saturation that result from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/ocean-acidification-25822734/

27

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=105

By the end of the century, this could start to cause massive disruption to fish supplies.

NATURE CONSERVANCY: As our oceans become more acidic, shelled organisms like oysters, zooplankton and pteropods have difficulty forming their hard exterior shell, which can lead to a decrease in their population. When populations of shelled organisms begin to decline, food for dependent species also begin to decline

https://www.washingtonnature.org/fieldnotes/ocean-acidification-food-web

28

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=111

One early sign of this is "coral bleaching". Where coral reefs are being devastated. By factors including ocean heating - and acidification

PNAS/ proceedings of the national academy of sciences: Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders

https://www.pnas.org/content/105/45/17442

29

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=125

Bees help many plants reproduce - by carrying pollen from one plant to another.

SCIENCING: Bees benefit flowering plants by helping the plants reproduce, via pollination.

https://sciencing.com/do-flowers-bees-other-5796565.html

30

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=131

Since the start of this century, there has been a serious decline in the number of wild bees worldwide.

NAT GEO: Bumblebees are going extinct in a time of ‘climate chaos’

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/02/bumblebees-going-extinct-climate-change-pesticides/

31

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=140

bees help produce about a quarter of our food.

USDA: Three-fourths of the world's flowering plants and about 35 percent of the world's food crops depend on animal pollinators to reproduce. More than 3,500 species of native bees help increase crop yields.

https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/plantsanimals/pollinate/

32

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=143

decline of bees and similar animals has been called an "ecological Armageddon

THE GUARDIAN: Warning of 'ecological Armageddon' after dramatic plunge in insect numbers

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/oct/18/warning-of-ecological-armageddon-after-dramatic-plunge-in-insect-numbers

33

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=148

no-one knows for sure what is causing the decline.

SCIENCE NEWS: Mysterious case of the disappearing honey bee: New clues about decline

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150430141606.htm

34

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=153

Likely culprits include intensive farming, pesticide, climate change - and air pollution.

SIERRA CLUB: There is no single cause, according to most scientists who have studied the problem, but rather a combination of factors that include parasites, pathogens, pesticides, poor nutrition, and habitat loss. One of the greatest threats to honeybees is industrial agriculture's widespread use of pesticides.

https://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/ask-mr-green/why-are-honeybees-dying

35

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=160

Air pollution directly affects plants, animals - and humans.

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH: Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5122104/

36

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=171

severe pollution in cities such as Delhi or Beijing.

NAT GEO: In rapidly growing cities such as Beijing and New Delhi, air pollution has become so severe that respiratory disease is on the rise, flights have been grounded, and the public is often warned against letting children play outsid

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/energy/great-energy-challenge/big-energy-question/what-step-is-crucial-in-fighting-cities-air-pollution/

37

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=177

in parts of the UK, air pollution levels regularly break legal limits.

NEW SCIENTIST:  Legal air pollution limits for the whole year have been broken just five days into 2017 in London, figures show.

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2117305-london-road-has-broken-annual-legal-pollution-limits-already/

38

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=206

how many people die each year in the UK as a result of air pollution? ANSWER: over 28,000

KINGS COLLEGE LONDON: A new report led by King's and published by the government's Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) estimates that between 28,000 and 36,000 people die as a result of air pollution every year in the UK.

https://www.kcl.ac.uk/news/uk-air-pollution-could-cause-36000-deaths-a-year#:~:text=car%20exhaust-,A%20new%20report%20led%20by%20King's%20and%20published%20by%20the,every%20year%20in%20the%20UK.

39

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=207

report published by the British  government estimated that over 28,000 people die every year in the UK as a result of air pollution. Mostly from cars and trucks.

KINGS COLLEGE LONDON: A new report led by King's and published by the government's Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) estimates that between 28,000 and 36,000 people die as a result of air pollution every year in the UK.

https://www.kcl.ac.uk/news/uk-air-pollution-could-cause-36000-deaths-a-year#:~:text=car%20exhaust-,A%20new%20report%20led%20by%20King's%20and%20published%20by%20the,every%20year%20in%20the%20UK.

40

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=220

One possible example is Ella Kissi-Debrah, a 9-year-old girl from London who died of asthma probably triggered by air pollution.

BBC: Ella Kissi-Debrah: New inquest into girl's 'pollution' death... a 2018 report said it was likely unlawful levels of pollution, which were detected at a monitoring station one mile from Ella's home, contributed to her fatal asthma attack.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-48132490

41

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=229

Her tragic death is currently the subject of an important court case.

THE GUARDIAN: Inquest to determine if London air pollution caused child's death

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/17/inquest-air-pollution-ella-kissi-debrah-death

42

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=234

Deaths from air pollution are an example of  “systemic injustice”

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE: A systemic problem or change is a basic one, experienced by the whole of an organization or a country and not just particular parts of it:

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/systemic

42.1

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE: injustice is a situation in which there is no fairness and justice:

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/injustice

43

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=262

A common form of systemic injustice is - “environmental racism”'

WIKIPEDIA: Environmental racism is a concept in the environmental justice movement, which developed in the United States throughout the 1970s and 1980s. The term is used to describe environmental injustice that occurs within a racialized context both in practice and policy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_racism#:~:text=Environmental%20racism%20is%20a%20concept,both%20in%20practice%20and%20policy.

44

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=272

There, the Environmental Protection Agency has found that

There, the Environmental Protection Agency has found that

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1702747

45

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=275

African Americans are three times more likely to die from air pollution than their white counterparts.

QUARTZ: Environmental racism has left black Americans three times more likely to die from pollution

https://qz.com/1226984/environmental-racism-has-left-black-americans-three-times-more-likely-to-die-from-pollution/

45.1

NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE: Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population: Subgroup analyses revealed that men; black, Asian, and Hispanic persons; and persons who were eligible for Medicaid (i.e., those who had low socioeconomic status) had a higher estimated risk of death from any cause in association with PM2.5 exposure than the general population. The risk of death associated with ozone exposure was higher among white, Medicaid-eligible persons and was significantly below 1 in some racial subgroups (Figure 2). Among black persons, the effect estimate for PM2.5 was three times as high as that for the overall population

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1702747

CLIMATE JUSTICE

50

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=289

“Climate justice” is a term used to make a point. The point that the climate emergency is a social and political issue.

WIKIPEDIA: Climate justice is a term used to frame global warming as an ethical and political issue, rather than one that is purely environmental or physical in nature. ... The term climate justice is also used to mean actual legal action on climate change issues.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_justice#:~:text=Climate%20justice%20is%20a%20term,environmental%20or%20physical%20in%20nature.&text=The%20term%20climate%20justice%20is,action%20on%20climate%20change%20issues.

51

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=305

Politics is often a question, not of facts, but of how you INTERPRET facts.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA: “People think that they think like scientists,” said Professor Peter Ditto, who studies human judgment and decision making at UC Irvine. “But really they think like lawyers.” “Scientists don't care what the answer is: they look at the data and draw a conclusion,” said Ditto. “Lawyers know the conclusion they want to reach, then they harness a bunch of facts to support that conclusion.” And this, said Ditto, is how we construct our political facts, whether we realize we’re doing it or not.

https://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/when-it-comes-politics-you-re-not-rational-you-think

52

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=344

The way that different aspects of our identities combine, overlap or 'intersect' is what is sometimes called “Intersectionality”. This creates varying forms of discrimination for some people. And various forms of privilege for others.

Intersectionality is a theoretical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's social and political identities (e.g., gender, sex, race, class, sexuality, religion, disability, physical appearance, height etc.) combine to create unique modes of discrimination and privilege.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intersectionality

53

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=360

Often, the people who are least responsible for climate change are hit by it first and worst.

UNITED NATIONS: Available evidence indicates that ... initial inequality causes the disadvantaged groups to suffer disproportionately from the adverse effects of climate change, resulting in greater subsequent inequality

https://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2017/wp152_2017.pdf

54

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=367

Following on from this is the idea that people with privilege should "centre” and amplify the voices of marginalised people who marginalised people who often have solutions but not resources.

BBC WOMAN'S HOUR: “Being a good ally means realising your privilege exists - whether that’s because of your race, class, gender or something else - and that pretending it doesn’t exist doesn’t change anything,” says presenter Richie Brave. “We all have an obligation to do something to make sure that society is better for everybody.”
...Use any platform you have to de-centre your voice and amplify the voices of people who are less heard,” says Richie.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/GxjYmfnH6hbMMy26Z2yTth/how-to-be-a-good-ally

55

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=381

The usual view is that the climate crisis started with the industrial revolution.

Climate proxy records show that natural variations offset the early effects of the Industrial Revolution, so there was little net warming between the 18th century and the mid-19th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has adopted the baseline reference period 1850–1900 as an approximation of pre-industrial global mean surface temperature, when thermometer records began to provide global coverage.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change

56

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=387

one point of view is that the climate emergency actually started with European colonisation in the 15th century.

OPENDEMOCRACY.NET: the period of European colonialism and systems of chattel slavery dating from the 15th century... powered by the industrial revolution and its exploitation of much of the world – unleashed colonial infrastructures into socioecological systems across the world, setting in motion the death of bioculturally diverse regions stewarded by diverse human peoples. Today we live in the ‘Anthropocene’ – a geological epoch beginning around 1610, which is characterised by the impact of this.

https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/opendemocracyuk/climate-stories-environment-colonial-legacies-and-systemic-change/

57

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=393

And that Western society today is built on the legacies of that colonialism.

OPENDEMOCRACY.NET: When thinking about most global social issues today, whether climate change, migration, conflicts over resources and state power, inequality, poverty or environmental disasters, it’s possible to trace connections between the present-day and the period of European colonialism and systems of chattel slavery dating from the 15th century.

https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/opendemocracyuk/climate-stories-environment-colonial-legacies-and-systemic-change/

58

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=400

colonisation... was a structurally racist economic system that harmed both marginalised people and the planet.

THE CONVERSATION: Colonialism was a disaster and the facts prove it

https://theconversation.com/colonialism-was-a-disaster-and-the-facts-prove-it-84496

59

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=405

The legacies of colonialism still have an impact today. And they are accelerating the climate crisis.

OPENDEMOCRACY.NET:  To fix the climate crisis, we must face up to our imperial past...  ‘the current acceleration of climate change is not only an unintentional consequence of industrialization. The climate has always been a project for colonial powers, which have continually acted to engineer it.

https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/opendemocracyuk/to-fix-climate-crisis-we-must-acknowledge-our-imperial-past/

60

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=426

Project Drawdown is a major international study. It ranks 120 climate solutions according to their effectiveness.

Project Drawdown is a climate change mitigation project initiated by Paul Hawken and climate activist Amanda Joy Ravenhill. Central to the project is the compilation of a list of the "most substantive solutions to global warming".[2] The list, encompassing only technologically viable, existing solutions, was compiled by a team of more than 200 scholars, scientists, policymakers, business leaders, and activists.[3][4] The team measured and modeled each solution's carbon impact through the year 2050, its total and net cost to society, and its total lifetime savings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drawdown_(climate)

60.1

Here, we present the individual solutions reviewed and assessed by Project Drawdown, including their relevant sector(s) and their impact on reducing heat-trapping gases.

https://drawdown.org/solutions/table-of-solutions

61

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=430

One top climate solution they present is simply this…To guarantee the right of girls worldwide to education And to guarantee the right of women worldwide to voluntary, high-quality family planning.

SOLUTION SUMMARY *** Educating Girls Education lays a foundation for vibrant lives for girls and women, their families, and their communities. It also is one of the most powerful levers available for avoiding emissions by curbing population growth. Women with more years of education have fewer and healthier children, and actively manage their reproductive health. *** Family Planning - Securing women’s right to voluntary, high-quality family planning around the world would have powerful positive impacts on the health, welfare, and life expectancy of both women and their children. It also can affect greenhouse gas emissions.

https://drawdown.org/solutions/health-and-education

62

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=469

If answer 85 billion tons: That’s right. Project Drawdown studied the effect of guaranteeing female birth control and education worldwide. They estimate this could cut CO2 emissions by 85 billion tonnes between now and 2050.

85.42 GIGATONS CO2 EQUIVALENT REDUCED / SEQUESTERED (2020–2050)

https://drawdown.org/solutions/health-and-education

63

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=489

Many environmentalists see capitalism as a fundamental CAUSE of the climate emergency.

OPEN DEMOCRACY: The fight against climate change is a fight against capitalism
Global warming is rooted in an economic system that has a parasitoid relationship with the Earth upon which we live.

https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/oureconomy/fight-against-climate-change-fight-against-capitalism/

64

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=498

capitalism often idealises constant economic growth

WIKIPEDIA: Historically, capitalism has an ability to promote economic growth as measured by gross domestic product (GDP), capacity utilization or standard of living. This argument was central, for example, to Adam Smith's advocacy of letting a free market control production and price and allocate resources. Many theorists have noted that this increase in global GDP over time coincides with the emergence of the modern world capitalist system

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalism#Economic_growth

65

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=501

“Anti-capitalist” environmentalists say that ending climate change requires the end of capitalism.

THE GUARDIAN: Ending climate change requires the end of capitalism. Have we got the stomach for it?  Policy tweaks won’t do it, we need to throw the kitchen sink at this with a total rethink of our relationship to ownership, work and capital.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/mar/18/ending-climate-change-end-capitalism

66

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=510

oppressive systems of power perpetuate the climate emergency and hurt marginalised people

350PDX.ORG capitalism, colonialism, the prison-industrial complex, and patriarchy are used to oppress black and brown peoples globally and... this oppression is intimately tied to the creation of climate change,

https://350pdx.org/women-color-speak-climate-change-systems-oppression/

67

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=517

the solution to the climate emergency needs to be anti-oppressive: anti-racist, anti-sexist - and anti-capitalist.

RED PEPPER: In order to envision a future in which we will all be liberated from the root causes of the climate crisis – capitalism, extractivism, racism, sexism, classism, ableism and other systems of oppression –  the climate movement must reflect the complex realities of everyone’s lives in their narrative.

https://www.redpepper.org.uk/an-open-letter-to-extinction-rebellion/

68

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=529

capitalism CAN fight climate change if it is moderated by things like tax incentives and regulations.

FORBES MAGAZINE: Yale University’s Environmental Performance Index (EPI) uses 16 indicators to rank countries on environmental health, air quality, water, biodiversity, natural resources and pollution. These indicators have been selected to reflect both the current baseline and the dynamics of national ecosystems. One of the Index’s most striking findings is that there is a strong correlation between a state’s wealth and its environmental performance. Most developed capitalist countries achieve high environmental standards.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/rainerzitelmann/2020/07/13/system-change-not-climate-change-capitalism-and-environmental-destruction/#23f522196d72

68.1

YALE UNIVERSITY: 2020 Environmental Performance Index

https://envirocenter.yale.edu/2020-environmental-performance-index

69

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=543

Since 2010, the price of wind power has fallen 40%.

IRENA (The International Renewable Energy Agency) REPORT: Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2019:  wind power costs have continued to fall... the... cost decline over 2010-2019 (for) onshore wind (was) 40%

https://www.irena.org/publications/2020/Jun/Renewable-Power-Costs-in-2019

70

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=549

And the amount of wind power generated in the UK has risen 800%

UK Wind power generation:
2010: 7,950 GW·h generated
2019: 64,134 GW·h generated
64,134/7,950 = 806%

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_the_United_Kingdom

71

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=554

Since 2010 the price of solar power has fallen by 82%.

IRENA (The International Renewable Energy Agency) REPORT: Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2019: Solar photovoltaics (PV) shows the cost decline over 2010-2019

https://www.irena.org/publications/2020/Jun/Renewable-Power-Costs-in-2019

72

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=559

And the amount of solar power generated in the USA has risen by about 2000%.

Solar photovoltaic power installed capacity
2010: 918.0 MWp
2020: 19,566 MWp (forecast)
19,566/918.0 = 2131%

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power_in_the_United_States

73

https://youtu.be/tVJtwOlw0xo?t=574

This is sometimes called a ‘technocratic’ approach. Because it sets out to fix climate change as a series of TECHNICAL problems. Without seeking to significantly change POLITICAL systems.

Technocracy is an ideological system of governance in which a decision-maker or makers are elected by the population or appointed on the basis of their expertise in a given area of responsibility, particularly with regard to scientific or technical knowledge. ... Decision-makers are selected on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than political affiliations or parliamentary skills.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technocracy

WHAT CAN WE DO AS CITIZENS?

80.1

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=69

Extinction Rebellion or “XR”

Link to website:

https://extinctionrebellion.uk/

80.2

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=74

WWF

Link to website:

https://www.wwf.org.uk/

80.3

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=76

Friends of the Earth

Link to website:

https://friendsoftheearth.uk/

80.4

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=77

Greenpeace

Link to website:

https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/

80.5

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=78

Stop Ecocide

Link to website:

https://www.stopecocide.earth/

80.6

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=80

Fashion Revolution

Link to website:

https://www.fashionrevolution.org/

80.7

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=81

the UAL Climate Emergency Network

Link to website:

https://www.arts.ac.uk/about-ual/sustainability/climate-emergency

81

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=91

With those groups - or on your own - you can take part in simple, lawful protests. Assuming that you’re in the UK, this will not get you arrested.

DAS LAW: Freedom of speech and the right to protest peacefully are protected by both the common law and the Human Rights Act 1998.... With so many laws and regulations to consider – not to mention Covid-19 social distancing – Jeanine Borg, Legal Adviser at DAS Law, explains your rights…

https://www.daslaw.co.uk/blog/right-to-peaceful-protest

82

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=101

But with groups like XR, you can also choose to get involved in “non-violent direct action”. This often involves things that CAN get you arrested. And prosecuted. So make sure you’re informed - and be careful about what you choose to do.

DAS LAW: Police can only place restrictions on a protest or demonstration if they have reason to believe that it will result in property damage, disruption of the community, or serious public disorder. ... if you choose to go ahead with the protest in spite of these restrictions, you or your fellow protesters could find yourself placed under arrest.

https://www.daslaw.co.uk/blog/right-to-peaceful-protest

83

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=138

you can join a political party.

THE GUARDIAN: Want to get involved in party politics? It costs less than you think

https://www.theguardian.com/money/2015/jun/13/party-politics-cost-getting-involved-pitfalls

84

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=144

You don’t need to have voted for your MP. And you don’t need to be a UK citizen. If you're in an MP's area, it’s their JOB to represent you.

Many foreigners feel that because they don’t have the right to vote in general elections, their voices will not be considered by elected representatives. This is not the case. As constituents, you have rights and you can raise queries – and it’s your local MP’s job to respond to them.

https://scienceisvital.org.uk/resources/non-uk-citizens/

85

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=153

Many MPs have weekly “surgeries” where they talk to their constituents. People like you.

In their constituency, MPs often hold a 'surgery' in their office, where local people can come along to discuss any matters that concern them.

https://www.parliament.uk/about/mps-and-lords/members/mps/

86

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=159

Contact details for all MPs are on the fact sheet.

Use the 'Find MPs' tool - link is in the next column.

https://members.parliament.uk/members/Commons

87

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=211

Yes, you’re right. The court agreed with the protestors and stopped the third runway.

THE GUARDIAN: Heathrow third runway ruled illegal over climate change

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/feb/27/heathrow-third-runway-ruled-illegal-over-climate-change

88

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=279

Now some people say that if you really want to change things, you can't JUST focus on lifestyle changes. You also need to take political action.

THE GUARDIAN:  Individual sacrifice alone will not bring us to zero. It can be achieved only by real structural change;

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jul/10/individuals-climate-crisis-government-planet-priority

89

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=292

Research shows that when one person makes a “green” choice, it can influence others to do the same.

People standing in line at a Stanford campus café read statements describing how some people “limit how much meat they eat” (static) or “are starting to limit how much meat they eat” (dynamic). Lunch goers who read the dynamic statement were twice as likely to order a meatless meal than those in the static group (34 percent compared to 17 percent).

https://news.stanford.edu/press-releases/2017/10/06/change-behaviorserception-normal/

90

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=334

According to the World Bank, the annual CO2 emissions of the average person in the UK is about six and a half tonnes.

CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) - United Kingdom 2014: 6.497 tonnes

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC?locations=GB

91

(CALCULATE YOUR CARBON FOOTPRINT)

THE GUARDIAN: Not all 'carbon calculators' are equal. Carolyn Fry looks at the best ones online

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/feb/19/carbon.web

92

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=343

That’s the weight of about 100 people.

ARREPIM DATA SITE: The average weight of a female of average height (161cm tall) age 20-24 is 54kg (Note: This film is for students, average age approx 20-24).

https://stats.areppim.com/stats/stats_weight_avgfem.htm

92.1

ARREPIM DATA SITE: The average weight of a male of average height (175cm tall) age 20-24 is 69.2kg

https://stats.areppim.com/stats/stats_weight_avgmale.htm

92.2

CALCULATE: 54 + 69.2 = 123/2 divided by 2 = 61.6; Thus the average weight of a 20-24 year old is 61.6kg, rounded up for simplicity to 65kg.

93

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=348

A Swedish university recently researched the effectiveness of 148 possible individual actions.

LUND UNIVERSITY, SWEDEN: The four lifestyle choices that most reduce your carbon footprint

http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/article/four-lifestyle-choices-most-reduce-your-carbon-footprint

94

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=360

Number 3 is - avoid flying.

LUND UNIVERSITY, SWEDEN: High Impact Actions - Avoid one flight (depending on length

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541/meta

95

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=369

avoiding an economy-class return trip from London to New York, you’ll cut about 0.7 tonnes of CO2,

BBC: An economy-class return flight from London to New York emits an estimated 0.67 tonnes of CO2 per passenger,

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-49349566

96

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=385

Everyone has a right to freedoms - such as freedoms of belief, expression and sexuality. But some people can’t get that freedom in their home countries. Flying gives them that freedom, by letting them travel.

Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of censorship or punishment. "Speech" is not limited to public speaking and is generally taken to include other forms of expression. The right is preserved in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. Nonetheless the degree to which the right is upheld in practice varies greatly from one nation to another.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_speech_by_country

97

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=397

If flights are unavoidable, some organisations and people choose to fund work like reforestation that takes carbon OUT of the atmosphere.
This is called “carbon offsetting”.

THE GUARDIAN: Links to
Climate Care
Atmosfair
Carbonfund.org
Clevel
Flygreen
Myclimate
Carbonfootprint.com
Gold Standard

https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2019/aug/02/offsetting-carbon-emissions-how-to-travel-options

98

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=409

It can be done through platforms like Climate Care dot org

ClimateCare is a profit for purpose environmental and social impact company known for its role providing carbon offset services, with a particular focus on using carbon and other results based finance to support its 'Climate+Care Projects

https://climatecare.org/

99

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=413

Atmosfair.de

Atmosfair is an independent German non-profit organization which offers offsets for greenhouse gases emitted by aircraft, cruise ships, long-distance coaches, and events.

https://www.atmosfair.de/en/

100

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=416

carbonfund.org

The Carbonfund.org Foundation (known as Carbonfund.org) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization based in East Aurora, NY that provides carbon offsetting and greenhouse gas reduction options to individuals, businesses, and organization

https://carbonfund.org/

101

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=421

Number 2. You could eat more plants, and less meat!

LUND UNIVERSITY, SWEDEN: High Impact Actions - Eat less meat

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541/meta

102

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=425

If you were a meat eater who went vegan, this would save over a tonne of carbon per year from your output. Or the weight of about 17 people.

NEW SCIENTIST: If those eating more than 100 grams of meat a day – a fairly small rump steak – went vegan, their food-related carbon footprint would shrink by 60 per cent, saving the equivalent of 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year.

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25795-going-vegetarian-halves-co2-emissions-from-your-food/

103

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=439

the climate impact of beef and lamb is MUCH higher than other animal protein like pork, fish, chicken or milk.

CARBON BRIEF: The chart illustrates how the climate impact of beef and lamb dwarfs that of other foods.

https://interactive.carbonbrief.org/what-is-the-climate-impact-of-eating-meat-and-dairy/

104

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=447

Number 1. Switch to green power.

LUND UNIVERSITY, SWEDEN: High Impact Actions - Purchase green energy

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541/meta

105

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=456

Switching to green power can save 1.3 tonnes of carbon a year from your output

BULB ENERGY:  By choosing a renewable supplier, the average (customer of a green enerny company) saves 1.3 tonnes of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere every year.

https://bulb.co.uk/blog/green-great-britain-week-five-things-you-can-do-today-to-help-the-country

106

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=519

Christiana Figueres... is the Costa Rican architect of the Paris Accord.

Karen Christiana Figueres Olsen is a Costa Rican diplomat with experience in high level national and international policy and multilateral negotiations. She was appointed Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ... leading to the 2015 Paris Agreement, widely recognized as a historical achievement.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christiana_Figueres

107

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=523

the Paris Accord... is by far the most ambitious global agreement to reduce climate emissions.

The Paris Agreement (French: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016... As of February 2020, all UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, 189 have become party to it, and the only significant emitters which are not parties are Iran and Turkey.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Agreement

108

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=529

Here’s a summary of some of what (Christiana Figueres) says in a book she co-wrote with Tom Rivett-Carnac, “The Future We Choose”…

The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac

https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B07Y2B5ZCC/ref=dp-kindle-redirect?_encoding=UTF8&btkr=1

109

https://youtu.be/TUbLc8Xeg_8?t=615

It may seem impossible to stop climate change now. But lots of big challenges seem impossible. Until they are overcome.

Adatped from "It Always Seems Impossible Until It’s Done"; The general saying has a very long history, and versions have been employed by the naturalist Pliny the Elder, the rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard, the SF author Robert Heinlein and others. (Note however that this was apparently never said by Nelson Mandela, in spite of appearing as such on various inspirational posters, videos etc.)

https://quoteinvestigator.com/2016/01/05/done/